Cesvi multiple approach to fight hunger worldwide.
Cesvi believes that a single approach is not sufficient to solve the problem of hunger: connection between economic, social and health development must be taken into account. Moreover it is important to consider the existing link between political instability, lack of democracy, conflict, education and hunger: countries occupying the top positions for the worst nutritional status of their population are the same affected by years of conflict. Food security, together with health and access to water and sanitation, is one of the main areas involved in the transition from humanitarian aid to long term development. Therefore it is a priority for the LRRD (Linking Relief Rehabilitation Development).
Cesvi’s food security programmes are designed following the World Food Summit (1996) definition: “food security is achieved, when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food for a healthy and active life”. In addition, as a member of Alliance2015, Cesvi acknowledges the right to food as a vital component towards meeting the Millennium Development Goal (1) of reducing by half the proportion of people afflicted by extreme poverty and hunger by the year 2015. Food security should not be confused with the concept of food self-sufficiency that refers only to the domestically-produced food availability at national level. Food security considers the element of stability of supply and access to food by the population; it is a broader concept.
The four pillars of Food Security:
- Availability: as domestic production, import capacity, food stocks and food aid,
- Access and consumption: purchasing power, transport and market infrastructure, food distribution,
- Utilization: care and feeding, food safety and quality, clean water, health and sanitation,
- Food stability: weather variability, price fluctuations, political factors, economic factors.
Food availability is achieved when sufficient quantities of food are consistently available to all individuals within a country. Such food can be supplied through household production, other domestic output, commercial imports or food assistance. Food access is ensured when households and all individuals within them have adequate resources to obtain appropriate foods for a nutritious diet. Access depends upon income available to the household, on the distribution of income within the household and on the price of food. Food utilization is the proper biological use of food, requiring a diet providing sufficient energy and essential nutrients, potable water, and adequate sanitation. These three concepts together with food stability show how food security and livelihoods are interlinked with each other; that is why a food security intervention should always be aimed at increasing livelihoods of the target group or area through a multiplicity of actions. These activities can be very different dealing with social, nutritional, agricultural or economic aspects.
Starting conditions of target groups and context of intervention contribute to define at least three typologies of actions: food aid, food security and rural development. Each of them can be characterised by a combination of economic, social, infrastructural activities etc. A fourth typology is constituted by all those interventions aimed at increasing access to water for human or agricultural use. Finally, among rural development projects, eco-development projects have a great importance combining rural development actions, income generation, increase of food security (especially for indigenous communities), protection and sustainable development of natural resources.
Achieving Food Security in different contexts:
Food Aidà Economic recoveryà Rural development
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